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November 3, 2000

PER CAPITA MORPHINE USE: SUMMARY:
The average percentage change in morphine use in ten states which passed laws against assisted suicide incorporating language on pain control similar to that of the Pain Relief Promotion Act was +51%

Grams of morphine per 100,000 people for states passing new laws against intentionally assisting suicide and including wording affirming that aggressive pain care is legitimate medical care even if it might increase the likelihood of patient death, language which is also included in federal Pain Relief Promotion Act.

Iowa - passed ban in 1996 (took effect July, 1996)
1995 - 935 g - 30th among states
1996 - 1221 - 28th
1997 - 2207 - 26th
1998 - 2029 - 38th
Percentage change in morphine use (from year before enactment to year after): +136%

Kansas - passed law in 1998 strengthening law against assisted suicide and adding civil penalties, while adding double effect provision affirming pain control that may unintentionally hasten death (took effect July, 1998)
1997 - 2047 g - 35th
1998 - 2016 - 39th
1999 - 2179 - 32nd
2000 (first half, pro-rated) - 2311 - 31st
Percentage change in morphine use: +6 %

Kentucky - passed ban in 1994 (took effect July, 1994)
1993 - 1388 g - 11th
1994 - 1624 - 6th
1995 - 1462 - 4th
1996 - 1673 - 7th
Percentage change in morphine use: +5%

Louisiana - passed ban in 1995 (took effect June, 1995)
1994 - 843 g - 41st
1995 - 786 - 45th
1996 - 1058 - 37th
1997 - 1845 - 42nd
Percentage change in morphine use: +26%

Maryland - passed law in 1999 (took effect October, 1999)
1998 - 2858 g -16th
1999 - 2990 - 15th
2000 (first half, pro-rated) - 3347 - 12th
Percentage change in morphine use: +17%

Rhode Island - passed ban in 1996 (took effect August, 1996)
1995 - 928 g - 33rd
1996 - 966 - 46th
1997 - 2454 - 18th
1998 - 2480 - 24th
Percentage change in morphine use: +164%

South Carolina - passed ban in 1998 (took effect June, 1998)
1997 - 1457 g - 51st
1998 - 1625 - 49th
1999 - 1659 - 49th
2000 (first half pro-rated) - 2014 - 43rd
Percentage change in morphine use: +14%

South Dakota - passed law in 1997 to strengthen ban on assisted suicide, adding civil penalties, while adding double effect language affirming pain control that may unintentionally hasten death (took effect July, 1997)
1996 - 978 g - 45th
1997 - 2132 - 30th
1998 - 1896 - 43rd
1999 - 1880 - 43rd
Percentage change in morphine use: +94%

Tennessee - passed law in 1993 (took effect July, 1993)
1992 - 1180 g -16th
1993 - 1417 - 9th
1994 - 1544 - 8th
1995 - 1407 - 7th
Percentage change in morphine use: +31% (for first half of 2000, Tennessee ranks 2nd highest among all states, with 2261 g of morphine per 100,000 people pro-rated for full year this would be 4522 g)

Virginia - passed law in 1998 (took effect April, 1998)
1997 - 2007 g - 37th
1998 - 2106 - 33rd
1999 - 2401 - 27th
2000 (first half, pro-rated) - 2432 - 28th
Percentage change in morphine use: +20%

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Per capita use of morphine in states passing new laws against assisted suicide (WITHOUT principle of double effect provision affirming doctors' ability to provide pain control that may unintentionally hasten death)

Georgia - passed ban in 1994
1993 - 1029 g per 100,000 people - 28th among states
1994 - 937 - 33 rd
1995 - 838 - 39th
1996 - 1030 - 39th
Percentage change in morphine use (from year before enactment to year after): -19% (a year later morphine use was back up to its older level)

Illinois - passed ban in 1993
1992 - 811 g - 40th among states
1993 - 872 - 39th
1994 - 880 - 36th
1995 - 822 - 40th
Percentage change in morphine use: +9%

Michigan - passed ban in 1998 (took effect September, 1998)
1997 - 2251 g - 24th
1998 - 2540 - 23rd
1999 - 2700 - 19th
2000 (first half pro-rated) - 2737 - 22nd
Percentage change in morphine use: +20%

Oklahoma - strengthened law in 1998 to add civil penalties (took effect November, 1998)
1997 - 2097 g - 31st
1998 - 2186 - 30th
1999 - 2137 - 34th
2000 (first half pro-rated) - 2277 -- 33rd
Percentage change in morphine use: +2%

Average percentage change in morphine use in these four states, comparing year before enactment of assisted suicide ban to year after enactment: +3%

Average percentage change in morphine use in the ten states which passed laws against assisted suicide incorporating language on pain control similar to that of the Pain Relief Promotion Act: +51%

Source of data on per capita use of morphine: U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration


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